Effects of the Sea Breeze Circulation on Soil Temperature Over Kuwait Using in Situ Observations and the ECMWF Model

Hussain Alsarraf1, *, Matthew V.D. Broeke2, Hala Aljassar3
1 Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, American University of Kuwait, Salmiya, Kuwait
2 Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588, USA
3 Department of Physics, Kuwait University, Kuwait City, Kuwait

© 2019 Alsarraf et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences American University of kuwait Salmiya, Kuwait; Tel:+996 99663313; E-mails: and



The mesoscale circulation over Kuwait is an important influence on changes in surface temperatures and soil temperatures.


This paper presents two common summertime atmospheric features over Kuwait linking wind circulation to soil temperatures.


In this study, we use the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts ECMWF reanalysis ERA-Interim dataset to investigate effects of the synoptic scale and mesoscale circulations.


The results show that a large-scale pressure gradient in summer typically leads to northerly winds over Kuwait, while a weak synoptic-scale pressure gradient leads to light easterly humid winds from the Persian Gulf, consistent with a mesoscale circulation.


The results demonstrate the significance of wind circulations in driving the Soil Temperature (SOILT). Using the Era-Interim/Land reanalysis dataset for August 2015 over Kuwait, the average SOILT on days of sea breeze is higher than the average SOILT on days dominated by a synoptic-scale pressure gradient.

Keywords: Synoptic scale forcing, Mesoscale circulation, Kuwait, Arabian Peninsula, Soil temperature, Shamal, ECWMF, AWOS, ERA-Interim.