Empirical Models for Estimating Tropospheric Radio Refractivity Over Osogbo, Nigeria

D. O. Akpootu1, *, A. M. Rabiu2
1 Department of Physics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria
2 Sokoto Energy Research Centre, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

© 2019 Akpootu and Rabiu

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at Department of Physics, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; Tel: +234 7038918403;



Estimation of tropospheric radio refractivity is significant in the planning and design of terrestrial communication links.


In this study, the monthly average daily atmospheric pressure, relative humidity and temperature data obtained from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) during the period of twenty two years (July 1983 - June 2005) for Osogbo (Latitude 7.47 0 N, Longitude 4.29 0 E, and 302.0 m above sea level) were used to estimate the monthly tropospheric radio refractivity. The monthly average daily global solar radiation with other meteorological parameters was used to developed one, two, three and four variable correlation(s) tropospheric radio refractivity models for the location. The accuracy of the proposed models are validated using statistical indicator of coefficient of determination (R2), Mean Bias Error (MBE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Percentage Error (MPE), Nash - Sutcliffe Equation (NSE) and Index of Agreement (IA).


In each case one empirical model was recommended based on their exceptional performances after ranking, except for the two variation correlations with two empirical models. The recommended models were further subjected to ranking from which the three variable correlations model that relates the radio refractivity with the absolute temperature, relative humidity and global solar radiation was found more suitable for estimating tropospheric radio refractivity for Osogbo with R2 = 100.0%, MBE = -0.2913 N-units, RMSE = 0.3869 N-units, MPE = 0.0811%, NSE = 99.9999% and IA = 100.00%.


The newly developed recommended models (Equations 16c, 17d, 17f, 18d and 19) can be used for estimating daily and monthly values of tropospheric radio refractivity with higher accuracy and has good compliance to highly varying climatic conditions for Osogbo and regions of similar climatic information.

Keywords: Tropospheric radio refractivity, Osogbo, Meteorological parameters, Statistical indicators, Empirical regression model, Variable correlation(s).