RESEARCH ARTICLE


Relations Between Bulk Precipitation, PM10 Composition and Meteorological Conditions in the Metropolitan Area of Costa Rica



Jorge Herrera Murillo*, 1, Susana Rodríguez2, José Félix Rojas1, Armándo Baez3
1 Laboratorio de Análisis Ambiental, Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Nacional. Campus Omar Dengo, Heredia, Costa Rica
2 Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica. Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio, Costa Rica
3 Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, D.F., México


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© 2012 Murilloet al.;

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Laboratorio de Analisis Ambiental, Escuela de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad Nacional. Campus Omar Dengo, Heredia, Costa Rica; Tel: (506) 22773292; Fax: (506) 22773696; E-mail: jherrer@una.ac.cr


Abstract

Concentrations of inorganic ions (Cl-, H+, SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and metals (V, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cr Mn, Al, Fe) in bulk precipitation and PM10 samples collected in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica were analyzed. Good correlations between acidity in bulk precipitation with the concentrations of aerosols in the air were observed. The scavenging of the pollutants from the air directly affects the pH and composition of the bulk precipitation. The major ions in bulk precipitation in the metropolitan area of Costa Rica were SO42-, NH4+, Ca2+, Na+ ion percentages with 41.4, 12.0, 10.9 and 9.1 respectively. Al, Fe and Mn were the most abundant trace metals. The alkaline cations, NH4+ and Ca2+, actedas acid neutralizers and buffered the acidity of bulk precipitation. Meteorological conditions presented during the events determine the composition of bulk precipitation samples.

Keywords: Water Soluble Ions, PM10, Trace Metals, Bulk Precipitation, Costa Rica.